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UDK 376

Grigorieva O.


Kemerovo state university

The article is devoted to the study of the basic peculiarities of development of speech, of thinking, memory deaf and hard of hearing children of senior preschool age. The role of the systematic training of deaf and hard-of-hearing children in conditions of specialized pre-school educational institution.

Key words: cognitive processes, deaf and hard of hearing children, mental development.

The beginning of a systematic elaboration of the problems deaf-and-dumb psychology in our country is in the 30-m yy. XX in. when was created the theory of L. Vygotsky about the structure of a child's mental development, deviating from the normal. It is Vygotsky we introduced the concepts of primary defect and its direct consequences of [3]. In relation to this category of children, the violation of auditory perception is the primary defect; slow-motion relatively to normal and a peculiar development - the secondary consequences.

The modern researchers in the field of deaf-and-dumb psychology (D. Tarasov, A.Nasedkin, V. Lebedev, etc.) show that all the causes and factors of hearing should be divided into three groups [2]. The first group is the causes and factors leading to the emergence of hereditary deafness or hearing loss. The second group of factors that affect the developing fetus during pregnancy mother. The third group of factors acting on the safe hearing of the child in the process of his life [1].

In the literature there are three main groups of children with impaired hearing, deaf, hard of hearing and позднооглохшие [2]. Deaf children have a deep strong bilateral hearing impairment, which may be hereditary, congenital or acquired during early childhood - to mastering the language. If deaf children are not taught the speech of the special means, they become silent. The majority of deaf children have a residual hearing. They perceive only a very loud sound (the force of 70 - 80 Db) in the range of not above 2000 Hz.  Training of speech deaf children of special equipment only in rare cases provides formation of speech, coming to normal. Thus, deafness causes minor changes in the psychological development of a child is more slow and progressing with great originality of the development of speech. Hearing and speech underdevelopment in most cases, entail changes in the development of all the cognitive processes of the child, in the formation of his volitional behavior, emotions and feelings, character, and other aspects of a personality [2].

According to T. Rozanova, etc. for mental development of deaf and hard-of-hearing children is extremely important, how the process is organized their education and training from early childhood, to the extent in this process is taken into account peculiarities of mental development, how systematically implemented socio-pedagogical tools, providing compensatory development of the child [4].

Hard of hearing children with the partial failure of the hearing, leads to violations of the speech development. Hard of hearing is a child, if he begins to hear the sound volume from 20 to 70 Db.

Disadvantages of the hearing of the child have lead to a slowdown in the capture of speech, to listening in a distorted form. Options for the development of speech is impaired children is very high and depends on the individual psycho-physical characteristics of the child and from the socio-pedagogical conditions in which it is located, are brought up and trained. Hard of hearing child even with hypoacusis of the second degree by the time of entry into school may have developed, grammatically and is lexically correct it with some small errors in pronunciation of individual words or separate voice sounds. Mental development of the child is approaching the normal [4]. And at the same time, hard of hearing child with a hearing loss is only a first degree in unfavorable socio-pedagogical conditions of the development to 7 years of age may only use a simple sentence or only individual words, while it may abound inaccuracies pronunciation, mixtures of words in meaning and a variety of violations of the grammatical structure. From these children there are features in all mental development, which come near to those that are typical for deaf children.

Children of deaf later - it is the children who lost their hearing due to some illness or injury in 2-3 years and later life. With small balances hearing binding is speech perception with the help of a hearing aid and reading from the lips of the speaker. The total deafness should be used дактилологию, written speech and, possibly, жестовую speech of the deaf [1]. Moreover, the aggregate favourable conditions of upbringing and education of позднооглохшего the child's development of his speech, cognitive and volitional processes is close to normal. However, only in rare cases is overcome by the peculiarity of the formation of the emotional sphere, personality traits and interpersonal relations.

Hence, the purpose of the education of children of this category is the creation of a special educational space, allocates special tasks and sections of the training, as well as methods, techniques and means of achieving the educational objectives, which in the conditions of the regulations are achieved by traditional methods. The development of the psyche of children 3-7 years with hearing impairment substantially depends on what kind of deaf-and-dumb pedagogy  assistance they receive. The current program of upbringing and education of children with hearing impairments in conditions of specialized pre-school educational institution aimed at their comprehensive psycho-physical development.

Begin with a description of the results of experimental research, conducted on the basis of a specialized pre-school educational institution no. 32 Kemerovo city for children with problems of hearing. The study was aimed at establishing the level of development of the cognitive processes of the deaf and hard of hearing children in the age of 6-7 years. Special attention was paid to the study of the way of thinking, speech and different types of memory.

To assess the level of the formation of thinking there were several series of experiments. The first and second series allow to characterize the level of the formation of clearly-effective thinking when fulfilling the tasks of different level of complexity. A third was designed to assess visually and imaginative thinking.

The results of the experimental series - building of houses from bricks - showed that the majority of hearing, and deaf children of 6-7 years old are able to analyze the schematic image of houses from bricks, easy to distinguish in them the first and second floors, guided by the picture, choose the correct amount of bricks and build houses two hands. The construction of the roof of a house, having the form of a triangle (compiled from two triangular prisms), usually a few made it difficult to children. But 49.6%of the total, as of the deaf and hard-of-hearing children found the right solution, combining the two prisms together. However, 33.4 per cent of the deaf and hard of hearing children made several wrong sampling and only after that found the right solution. It should be noted that 17% of children in need of assistance of the experimenter. Thus, only certain children, as from the number of deaf and hard-of-hearing, committed mistakes in the construction of the house. Such children in percentage terms were a few more (but not significantly) among deaf people than among the hearing impaired (by 12.8%).

The task of the second series of studies - folding according to the drawing of different geometrical shapes of the two isosceles right triangles - proved to be more difficult for the majority of deaf children. So, among the deaf didn't have any children, who have shown the medium to high and high levels of success, as many of the hard of hearing. Most deaf children could not imagine myself as the connected part of the complex figures, they needed assistance in the form of the laying on of the sample. However, they are well received assistance and with the development of the following figures for several more successfully carried out a mental analysis of the sample and subject-effective synthesis of figures.

The successful solution of the evident problems with the use of matrices Raven deaf children 6-7 years is not significant inferior to non-hearing peers. However, only some hard of hearing children found the ability to solve the most complex tasks on establishment of relations between the signs by analogy. However, among the deaf met such children, which showed the level of development of visual thinking is below than in all other deaf and hard of hearing.

Data of the study on the opportunities of visual perception and visual thinking of deaf children of 6-7 years, showed that these children can distinguish between the many shades of color and identify objects on the specified grounds. However, the definition of the items on the color tone with different degree of its lightness is achieved children only when mastering the relevant verbal symbols, which points to the important role of speech in synthesis.

Go to the comparative analysis of the level of development of speech in the deaf and hard-of-hearing children. In one of the tasks of each person consistently showed 12 cards with the image of familiar objects. The task of the subject was to be called, which is shown in the picture. In 68% of hearing impaired children found no difficulty in naming depicted objects. Only in some cases, children admitted inaccuracy in pronouncing certain sounds, included in the composition of words.

In contrast to the hard of hearing, deaf when performing a task experienced significant difficulties. They called right of 5-6 items from 12. The average for 3-4 subject remained quite unnamed or designated individual sounds. In addition, in some cases met the erroneous designation of objects and failures of the naming.

Even more lag and uniqueness in the development of speech hard-of-hearing and deaf children revealed at a presentation of 12 picture pictures. Each of the children in the average formulated by 19,8 proposals to 12 pictures. The proposal, drawn up by children, held on 4-7 words. In their speeches were often errors. On average, noted 1,9 lexical errors, 0,4 - grammatical and 1.5 - stylistic.

Deaf children, while presenting them the same job, were in average by 9.5 per proposals to all the pictures (on the average on 2-3 words). On average, one child found 4 lexical errors, 6.4 and grammar, a 2.8 - stylistic.

In one series of studies to ascertain the capacity of children to use the shorthand word, uniting them a few words, and, on the contrary, to pick up the word of the more specific words. Children are offered in 8 of tasks for the transition from private to general, and from the general to the particular.

Hard of hearing children 6-7 years in the performance of these tasks had certain difficulties. From 8 jobs to find a synthesis of the words of the children properly in the average fulfilled 7 jobs. The vast majority of hearing-impaired children have successfully used the generalized words - "shoes", "vegetables", "trees". Significantly greater difficulties were observed when necessary, as a synthesis of concepts to call one of the following words or phrases: months, transport, body parts, parts of the day. The last two of these symbols could not call anybody from this group of children.

Of interest is the fact that deaf children at the fulfillment of tasks of the series "private - general; general - private" the results show that almost fully coincide with the results of their hard-of-hearing peers. We explain this attention that was paid to teachers in the use of different measures of generalized (in the process of the education of deaf children in pre-school institution in accordance with the program of development of speech, developed by L. Noskova).

Also we carried out a study of memory of the children: the simplest shape memory at the place of location of objects and memory for verbal their designations.

In front of the child on the table put the map with painted on it with 12 cells. In each cell there was a card with a picture of an object, a friend of children. The images were charged with child by one in the complex spatial sequence. The child was asked to name the objects depicted in the pictures. After the cards were removed and brought the child consistently. When this child was to show the place of each card on the document table. Then the subject asked to re-call, what things he had seen on the cards, that is learned, what and how much of verbal symbols of subjects remembered the subject.

In the analysis of the obtained results it was found that the accuracy of the picture of the location of objects on the document table deaf children have the results of the only slightly less successful than hard of hearing. So, hard of hearing reproduced in an average of 9.5 seats out of 12, and the deaf - 9,1. However, the success of playback of verbal symbols of objects deaf children much lower than the hard of hearing. Hard of hearing children's right remembered in the middle of the name of 8.7 items (with a standard deviation of 10 ± 1.6), and the deaf - 5,8 objects (standard deviation a16 ± 2,8).

The results indicate a rather high level of development of the deaf children of 6-7 years as the simplest clearly-shaped memory and figurative-verbal memory. However, it is necessary to note the significant general underdevelopment of speech in deaf children this age, beginning in the ignorance of some of the words designating objects of the nearest environment, and especially the significant difficulties of building the simplest of statements about what is drawn on a simple pictures with the image of the domestic scene.

Summing up the results of all of the above, regarding the level of development of the cognitive processes of the deaf children of 6-7 years of age, it should also be noted that these children quietly and intently behaved when performing experimental tasks. They adequately react to the assessment of their activities by the experimenter, sought to correct mistakes, rejoicing in the success. According to their behavior during all the experiments deaf children little different from his hard-of-hearing peers. The difference was just in the nature of the communication of the experimenter with children: in addition to verbal speech was used natural zhestovaya and separate contingent gestures.

Analyzing the obtained data, we should note, that the deaf children who do not have additional violations, by 6-7 years have good knowledge of arbitrary activities aimed at the fulfillment of the tasks, which offers them an adult and which require them сосредоточия attention, analysis of the conditions of the activities, the assessment of the problem situation, overcoming of obstacles. They emotionally and respond adequately to the nature of the tasks and achieved the success or failure of, seek to correct the decision of their task.

The level of development of clearly-effective thinking deaf children 6-7 years is quite consistent with the non-hearing peers. The same line is observed in the level of development figuratively-the visual and physical memory on the location of objects in space. In terms of the development of the visual-figurative thinking, more than two-thirds of deaf children find the average and above average levels of development, which corresponds to the same indicators of the hearing-impaired children. However, among the children of 6-7 years there are about one third of the children who reach the level of development of the visual-figurative thinking, characteristic for normal hearing children. For example, they can successfully operate images of objects in mind when solving problems. In addition, they solve the tasks, which presupposes the ability to establish relations on the analogy between the sets of visual signs, allocated in the conditions of tasks. Among the group of deaf children of 6-7 years, on the contrary, about one-third are the development of the visual-figurative thinking, below the average level. They can solve problems only with support on practical action and with the help of the experimenter. Also, these children hardly establish the relationship between the whole picture and its parts according to the principle of axial symmetry.

According to the indicators of development of speech, for the deaf children of senior preschool age be characterized by a significant underdevelopment of the usual home фразовой speech, which normally hearing children have already become proficient to two years and significantly improve its in the middle and senior school age. Speech of the deaf children of 6-7 years poor with a dictionary, on ways of expression. Therefore, the deaf children, there is a noticeable decline in verbal memory compared with that observed in their hearing peers. However, in case of systematic training in a specialized pre-school educational institution deaf children can be taught to different levels of generalization (genus and species of the terms and know how to use them in establishing relations "a-kind" and" kind of "rod").

In conclusion it should be noted that the upbringing and education of deaf and hard of hearing children in special pre-school educational institutions, starting with 2-3 years of age, has a high productivity. By the end of the pre-school age, i.e. by 6-7 years, a large part of deaf children 2-3 years in the special correctional institutions, reach the level of development of visual perception, close to normal. Children are well distinguish between basic colors of objects, simple geometric forms, allocate the size of objects. However, great difficulties arise in deaf children under the discernment of many colors, as they usually do not own the speech marks.

Thus, the process of the development of cognitive processes in the deaf and hearing-impaired children it is quite possible to improve, by solving the following problems: 1) the use of hearing aids for both ears at the same time; 2) support to children skilled deaf-and-dumb pedagogy  assistance; 3) creation of conditions for employment in small groups - two, three, four children, that will allow to carry out any form of activity involving a broad inclusion of speech, managed by the teacher, and every possible interaction of children with the teacher and with each other (this does not exclude the operation of large groups then, when it can benefit the mental and children's physical development); 4) the systematic comprehensive medico-psycho-pedagogical survey of deaf and hard-of-hearing children from 2 years of age (on admission to pre-school institution).



1. Varenova T. Theory and practice of special pedagogics [Text] / T. Varenova. - Minsk: Askar, 2003.- 486с.

2. Golovchiz L. Preschool deaf-and-dumb pedagogy [Text] / L. Golovchiz. - M, VLADOS, 2001. - 318с.

3. Children with disabilities: problems and innovative trends in education and upbringing. Reader on correctional pedagogy and special psychology [Text] / Ed. N. Sokolova L. Kalinikova. - M.: DWARF, 2001. - 286с.

4. Rozanova T. Features of cognitive activity of the deaf children of senior preschool age [Text] / T.. Rozanova // Defektologiya. – 1997. - № 4.


Секции-октябрь 2011
  • "Научные исследования и их практическое применение. Современное состояние и пути развития.'2011"
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