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УДК: 656.615:004.007

Davidova T.Y.



Tula State Teachers’ Training University named after Leo Tolstoy


Аннотация: Исследуются проблемы оптимизации управленческих решений субъектов хозяйствования по критериям эффективности, обеспечения качества продукции и жизнедеятельности человека и общества.

Ключевые слова: менеджмент качества, процесс производства, результативность, оптимизация процесса управления.

Abstract: Consideration of the questions of the optimization of the management decisions of the market subjects according to the criteria of effectiveness, provision of the product quality and the vital functions of a human being and a society.

Key words: management of quality, production process, resulting, optimization of control process.

At present time many Russian conceptions, schemes and approaches to the management of economy, production, education, etc. have a weak scientific substantiation. Acting by trial and error, ignoring scientific production foundations and blindly copying a foreign experiment without scientific knowledge, use of economic and mathematical methods, international and Russian quality standards, we will always remain behind in the management and development of knowledge. To the foreign competitors’ pleasure, such an approach leads to the great resource expenditures (in comparison with them), significant risks, benefit and advantage loss both for the single market subjects, branches, sectors and the country overal. The modern international and Russian global standards, SA, IEC, State Standard and the standards based on the results of science, technique and expertise head for the optimal use attainment for the all society. So the global standard 9000:2000 runs: quality is an extent with that a totality of the own distinguishing features (characteristics) carries out the needs and expectations of the interested parties that are fixed, usually supposed or obligatory [1, 2]. Quality is always directed at the satisfaction of the claims of some interested parties – consumers, proprietors, personnel, suppliers, investors and society. That determines the whole complexity and antipathy of the estimation process of the object quality (product, service, process, activity) because of a great number of opinions and preferences of the representatives of these parties, their heterogeneities, staff, intellect and needs.

In the supplement “B” of the global standard 9000:2000 it is mentioned that in any country at any enterprise, its subdivision and every work place the following elements (total 20) must function [1]: direction responsibility; quality system organization; contract analysis (made with a consumer); project development (of the output goods); documentation and information management; purchases (supply); management of the production delivered to a consumer; production identification and tracing; production processes management (technology, check-out, gaging and testing equipment, inappropriate production); control, checkout and metrology, their status; correctional and anticipatory actions; handling, storage, packing, preservation and delivery; management of the quality data logging; administrative review of the quality; education; service (backup, post-warranty); statistical technology.

A new edition of the global standard 9000:2000 foresees an imitation protection (“fool proof”) with an introduction of 4 (instead of 20) standards. They foresee an emphasis on a stochastic nature of the quality; heading of the enterprises for the result based on the process approach (identification, estimation, improvement of all the results on all the intermediate stages and at the enterprise); motivation division into a motivation by the interested party and a motivation by the direction. A market subject, discussing the effectiveness of the quality management system (QMS) but not working efficiently, looses confidence of the interested parties. Eight principles compose the basis of the QMS: orientation on a consumer; manager leadership; involving of the workers; a process approach; a systems approach to management; a constant improvement; decision-making on basis of the facts; mutually beneficial relations with the suppliers.

Introduction of the methods of the QMS construction headed for the processes demands the answers to the questions: 1) how must a market subject function to achieve the set goals; 2) what processes are considered the main or the subsidiary and how are they interconnected; 3) where is the value added made (a combination of the factors that is evidence of the satisfaction growth of the interested parties and that has or does not have a money means (the moral satisfaction growth of the all parties).

The algorithm of the preparation and introduction of the process approach includes [1]: 1) education of the managers and specialists of all the levels with the study of the subjects specificity (quality and management of the quality; realization at the enterprise of the processes and management processes; their owners and consumers of the processes, their goals, functions and requirements; satisfaction estimation of the consumers; management of the process improvement and the projects of realization); 2) analysis of the real processes creating the value added, active organizational structure of the market subject and its subdivisions with the indication of the processes of products output (service), their owners, participants of the realization and consumers; 3) analysis of the actions succession with the identification of the main processes of the market subject, which are determined by a chain “consumer requirements – processes of the production life cycle – proper production – consumer satisfaction”.

Success achievement by the market subject is connected with three stages: 1) decision of the strategic management tasks, at which top management is obliged to formulate quality policy and determine its  main long-term goals of operation of business starting from the strategic vision of its place and role at the market; 2) on basis of the strategic tasks management of the midrange formulates the goals, objectives and requirements to the processes, works out the document procedures describing the processes and regulating the requirements to all the indices of the processes and production, used equipment and immediate executors; 3) decision of the concrete production tasks on the level of the executors (workers, operators) on basis of the document procedures, which measure the immediate indices (characteristics) of the processes and watch the correspondence of the real values to the fixed requirements.

In the process of production the workers interact with the proper production and EMS provision while the heads and managers make decisions on the creation of both a product (goods, service, activity), value added and the information about production and processes, often having a big value in comparison with a product. That is why at the enterprise it is important to make the necessary information arrive on all the management levels in time without distortions. The processes of the inside information interchange are foreseen for the realization of the requirements of the fullness, authenticity, timeliness and availability of the information in the QMS.

According to the global standard 9001 (p. 4.1, f) any market subject must take action on the achievement of the planned results and the constant improvement of the passing processes and actions of the QMS (EMS). As the indices of every process are regulated by its owner together with a consumer, then along with the specificity peculiar to every production one can give the common recommendations on the choice of these indices. The resumptive index of the quality system or its part (object, process, etc.) is an effectiveness, measuring which for the definite period of time (before and after action conducting, the time interval later after beginning) one can establish a fact of the situation change. If the direct (immediate) process measuring (research results, introduction of the processes of marketing, personnel training. etc.) are impossible, then the quality can be estimated as “an extent” or the risk level.

In the quality management it is important to estimate the effectiveness of the actions and the task of the specialists is an optimization of the management process. It makes sense only together with a definite goal and the set (fixed) limits. The optimum of the objective function (profit, time, defects number, quantum and quality of output) is always a turning point, therefore one can maximize (minimize) only one objective function. In case of availability of a line of goals subjected to the optimization, usually some goals are transferred to the limits or some goals are combined into one objective function.

An adequate valuation of any process is possible only on basis of statistical description. The market subject is obliged to improve uninterruptedly its processes, and the QMS determines the effectiveness calculation of every process (subdivision, worker, enterprise). Effectiveness determination can be alternative (satisfaction of its own needs and the needs of other interested parties) or relative (extent of fulfillment of a number of points, underfulfilment of works against the base, etc.).

The market subject must determine by itself the criteria against the quality estimation and effectiveness. Usually the quality of the concrete production is estimated by the line of parameters and the optimization of the quality management is connected with the formulation of the objective function integrating some parameters (an output of the suitable goods according to all the parameters or a peer review of the quality of the supplied service).

Usually the optimization includes the following stages: an object study, a construction (choice) of the simulator; getting of the numerical value of the input data and date-line; a programming, debugging and a computer program selection; planning of the calculations or the experiments variants; calculations or experiments conducting; a necessary adjustment of the simulator  and the repeated calculations or experiments; recommendations formulating, decision-making.

Any market subject is interested in the effectiveness growth; that is why the optimization should touch upon all the processes during the coordinated timed work of personnel, moral-psychological climate provision by the direction, confidence between people, objective appraisal of the present situation with answers to the questions – what, where, when and how. We need knowledge for that, which according to N. Viner is “a distillation of the processes”. One can prove the optimum by the mathematical simulation of an object (goods, technological, organizational or other decision); neglect leads to the unjustified expenditures of time and means. The mathematical simulation in the production quality management or any other object is a main instrument of the ecological, socio-economic, scientific and technological advance. Management on basis of the intuitive models as a matter of principle cannot be of high quality because of the baffling complexity and mutual influence of the great number of internal and external factors. Experience and intuition of the specialist are important in the quality provision and they should be taken into consideration while defining the analysis problems. Management begins with the realization of the objective necessity, which should be satisfied, for that it is recommended [1]:

1) to analyse your needs and to carry out the information gathering about the needs of other parties and environment state;

2) to analyse the resources and to formulate a goal (quantitatively);

3) to choose a control object (market subject) and to define interesting for us characteristics or ways, object quality ratings;

4) to gather information about the common object behaviour pattern;

5) to decomposite the object, single out the processes as “black boxes” , define interesting characteristics (outlets, quality ratings of every process, which influence the object characteristics );

6) to define by what one can control and to compile a list of the control factors;

7) to define a list of the uncontrollable environment factors with singling out those subjected to measuring and immeasurable ones;

8) to conduct training (passive experiment): to gather information about the reaction of the outlets of all the processes and the object on the whole on the changes of the control factor and environment factors;

9) to develop the models of the detailed processes and to combine them into the behavioral model (functional) of the object with the algorithm of the transformation of information into the form suitable for the fulfillment of the control influences; to make a forecast of the object “behaviour” in response to the control influences and to choose their sizes for the goal attainment;

10) to conduct a mental (numerical, full-scale) or computer experiment on the model; to make a forecast of the object “behaviour” (optimal decision forecast) for the accurate goal attainment;

11) to realize the process in compliance with the forecast, to estimate or measure the result and to compare it with the goal; with all this going on:

a) if the goal is attained with the prescribed accuracy (acceptable mistake), then using the received result, to pass on to higher need;

b) if the goal is not attained but there are considerable resources, then to change the model structure, return to p. 9-11; if the resources are enough, then to conduct an active experiment, to fix independently the control factor and to realize the process, return to p. 8-11; if the resources are enough, then to change the object or the goal, return to p. 3-11; if the goal is not attained and the resources are exhausted, then to change or to reduce the requirement, return to p. 2-11;

12) if not optimal but “effective” decision is made, then to exclude p. 10 and to carry out p. 11 according to the forecast (p. 9).

The global standards 9000 provide the guiding line: 1) on the market on the single market subjects (aiming at own effectiveness, they must use cybernetic principles and models actively); 2) on the effective work at the simultaneous decrease of probability and risk of the wrong actions, softening or overcoming the resistance from the direction of the personnel and other interested parties; 3) on the opening what one should do but not how to achieve that; it is important that in the QMS a direct control object is not a production, documentation, information or quality.

Today the source of the hard competition is not a quality but its bearers (limited resources, land and capital). They are necessary for a human being as a means of accessing, storage and transmission of information and quality. People are always lacking in them as also in knowledge about quality, QMS, directed to the provision of security, reliability and effectiveness of the objects. Quality management use will allow the Russian market subjects to produce competitive products, optimize volume and content of emission and waste, keep evolution of the ecosystems, improve activity quality, environment state, health and life interval of the population.


1. Arsenyev Yu.N., Davidova T.Yu. Hybrid intellect systems. Economics. Management. Education. - M.: High School, 2008. - 566 p.

2. Davidova T.Yu. Intellectual and Potential potential of the market agent: management, quality assessment and efficiency methods. - M.: High School, 2005.


Секции-октябрь 2011
  • "Научные исследования и их практическое применение. Современное состояние и пути развития.'2011"
  • Дата: Октябрь 2011 года
  • Проведение: www.sworld.com.ua
  • Рабочие языки: Украинский, Русский, Английский.
  • Председатель: Доктор технических наук, проф.Шибаев А.Г.
  • Тех.менеджмент: к.т.н. Куприенко С.В., Федорова А.Д.

  • Сборник научных трудов SWorld по материалам международной научно-практической конференции.